3He NMR Studies on Helium–pyrrole, Helium–indole, and Helium–carbazole Systems

The 3He nuclear magnetic shieldings were calculated for free helium atom and He–pyrrole, He–indole, and He–carbazole complexes. Several levels of theory, including Hartree–Fock (HF), Second-order Møller-Plesset Perturbation Theory (MP2), and Density Functional Theory (DFT) (VSXC, M062X, APFD, BHandHLYP, and mPW1PW91), combined with polarization-consistent pcS-2 and aug-pcS-2 basis sets were employed. Gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO) calculated 3He nuclear magnetic shieldings reproduced accurately previously reported theoretical values for helium gas. 3He nuclear magnetic shieldings and energy changes as result of single helium atom approaching to the five-membered ring of pyrrole, indole, and carbazole were tested. It was observed that 3He NMR parameters of single helium atom, calculated at various levels of theory (HF, MP2, and DFT) are sensitive to the presence of heteroatomic rings. The helium atom was insensitive to the studied molecules at distances above 5 Å. Our results, obtained with BHandHLYP method, predicted fairly accurately the He–pyrrole plane separation of 3.15 Å (close to 3.24 Å, calculated by MP2) and yielded a sizable 3He NMR chemical shift (about −1.5 ppm). The changes of calculated nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS) with the distance above the rings showed a very similar pattern to helium-3 NMR chemical shift. The ring currents above the five-membered rings were seen by helium magnetic probe to about 5 Å above the ring planes verified by the calculated NICS index.

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